. Dr. Mudgal Abhay


The aim of this paper is to examine Mulk Raj Anand’s   fiction in terms of the ordeal of consciousness perceptible in their central characters. This ordeal can be described as a movement not always successful -from the initial phases of existential alienation and despair to a transcendence of these, through the quest for a unifying myth. In the novels of the thirties and the forties the writer's attitudes were mostly biased against the British and bitter memories associated with the British rule, overshadowed the pleasant experience with individual Englishmen. Mulk Raj Anand caricatured English men in Two Leaves and a Bud and R.K. Narayan found the Englishmen insufferably proud of their economic and intellectual superiority, in The English Teacher. But this bitterness gradually disappeared in the fifties. The hold on traditions was gradually relaxing while a new culture born out of the clash between East and West was merging imperceptibly but decisively. It is assumed that while, there is an insistent longing for death as a possible exist out of ordeal, this is sought to be overcome by a nascent awareness of a mythic consciousness. Therefore, the significance of these writers deeply rooted in the motifs stemming from the east-west encounter, tradition-modernity conflict, urban-rural dichotomy.


British Rule, Consciousness, Dichotomy, Ordeal, Quest, Tradition-Ridden, Untouchability

Full Text:



Raja Rao, Kanthapura (Oxford, 1947), 9.

N.C. Kelhar (Quoted by) "Letter to Meredith Townsenfd." The Mahratha, Poona, Feb. 1901.

K.B. Vaid. The Illustrated Weekly of India, May, 26, 1963. P. 7

K.R.S. lyenger , “Indian Writing in English”. (Bombay, Asia Publishing House, 1983, 264. Ed. 3, 1983.

Anand M.R. "The story of my Experiment with a white lie," Critical Essays on Indian Writing in English, eds. M.K. Naik, S.K. Desai and G.S. Amur (Madras Macmillan, 1977), p.6.

Author to Critic. Letter dated 22nd September, (1976), 6.

Mulk Raj Anand , Apology for Heroism (Kutub, Popular, 1957) 81 - 82.

M.K.Naik, Mulk Raj Anand (Delhi Arnold,Heinemanna, 1973), 18.

Ibid. 27.

C.D. Narasimhaiah "Mulk Raj Anand". The Novel of Human Centrality. The Swan and the Eagle, op. cit, 134.

Saroj Cowasjee (ed.). Author in Critic. The letters of Mulk Raj Anand to Saroj Cowasiee..(Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1973), 2.

Cowasjee, 12.

Cowasjee. 15.

K.R.S. lyenger, Indian Writing in English (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1989). 334.

Mulk Raj AnandApology for Heroism (Bombay: Kutub popular, 1940). 33.

K.N.Sinha. Mulk Raj Anand. (New york; Towayne World Author Series, 1972). 33.

M.K.Naik, Mulk Raj Anand. (Arnold Neinemann, India, 1973).. 150.

Times Literary Supplement.

Jasbir Jain: "Anita Desai, Indian English Novellists:" An Anthology of Critical Essays, ed. Madhusudan Prasad (New Delhi, Sterling Publishers, 1982), 25

Mulk Raj Anand. "The Story of My Experiment with a while lie” in the Critical Essays on Indian Writing in English, ed. M.K. Naik (Karnatak University - Dharwar, 1972), p. 8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.